Final post, for now.
If you would like to continue this, I would recommend that you purchase Taysir al-Nahw (by Maulana Muhammad Hasan, published by Qadimi Kutub Khana), which has the matn along with the urdu translation and commentary.
السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته
It is a taabi’ that is not a Sifah, that clarifies its matboo’, and it is the more famous of two names for something, such as قام ابو حفص عُمَر و قام عبد الله بن عمر . And it is not confused with the badl literally, in the example of the poets saying:
انا ابْنُ التّارِكِ البَكْرِيِّ بِشْرٍ عَلَيْهِ الطَّيْرُ تَرْقُبُهْ وُقُوعًا
It is a taabi’, attributed to which is that which is attributed to its matboo’, and it is a purpose of the nisbah even without its matboo’. There are four types of badl:
i. بدل الكل من الكل – and what is meant by it is what is meant by its matboo’ , such as جاءني زيدٌ اخوكَ
ii. بدل البعض من الكل – and what is meant by it is a part of what is meant by its matboo’, such as ضربتُ زيدًا راسَهُ
iii. بدل الاشتمال – and what is meant by it is is muta’alliq to the matboo’, like سُلِبَ زيدٌ ثوبُهْ
iv. بدل الغلط – and it is that which is mentioned after a mistake, such as جاءني زيدٌ جعفرٌ و ريتُ رجلا حمارًا
And if the badl to a ma’rifah is a nakirah, it is necessary to give it a na’t, like His saying, Most High: با لنّاصِيَةِ نا صِيَةٍ كاذِبَةٍ . And this is not necessary in its opposite (when badl is ma’rifah and the mubdal minhu is nakirah) and in mutajaanisayn (if they are both ma’rifah or both nakirah).
It is a taabi’ that indicates upon the establishment of its matboo’ in what is attributed to it, or upon the inclusion of the ruling for every individual from among the individuals of matboo’.
Ta`keed is upon two types:
i. lafZee, and it is the repetition of the first word, such as جاءني زيدٌ زيدٌ و جاء جاء زيد
ii. ma’nawee, and it is with a few words, and they are:
النفس و العين for singular, dual, and plural, with differing patterns and pronouns, such as جاءني زيدٌ نفسُهُ و الزيدان انفسهما او نفساهما و الزيدون انفُسُهم . And likewise, عينُهْ و اعينهما او عيناهما و اعينهم . For feminine: جاءتني هندٌ نفسُها و جاءتني الهندان انفسهما او نفساهما و جاءتني الهندات انفسهنَّ .
And كلا و كلتا are specifically for the dual, such as قام ارجلان كلاهما و قامت المراتان كلتاهما.
And كلٌّ و اجمَعُ و اكتَعُ و ابتع و ابصع , with variying pronouns in kul, and varying patterns in the rest. You will say: جاءن القوم كلهم اجمعون اكتعون ابتعون ابصعون و قامت النساء كلهن جُمَعُ و كُتَعُ و بتع بصع.
And if you want ta`keed of the attached marfoo’ pronoun with nafs and ‘ayn, it is necessary to do emphasize it with an unattached pronoun, such as ضربتَ انت نفسَك .
And a word is not made mu`akkad with kull and ajma’u except that which has components and parts, which are appropriate to seperate, either Hissan (different parts can actually physically seperate), like قوم , or Hukman, such as اشتريتُ العبدَ كلُّ (I purchase the entire slave (not 1/2, 1/3, etc.), but you do not say اكرمتُ العبد كله .
And know that اكتع و ابتع و ابصع are followers of اجمع , and do not have any meaning here without it, and it is not permissible to have them precede اجمع , and there is no mention of them without it.
It is a taabi’, attributed to it is that which is attributed to its matboo’, and both of them are intended for this nisbah (relationship). It is called ‘aTf al-nasq, and its condition is for one of the Huroof al-‘aTf to be between it and its matboo’, which will be mentioned in the third qism, in shaa`a allaahu ta’aalaa, such as قام زيدٌ و عمرٌو . When it is made ‘aTf of an attached marfoo’ pronoun, it is necessary to emphasize it with an unattached pronoun, such as ضربتُ انا و زيدٌ , except when there is a gap, such as ضربتُ اليومَ و زيدٌ . When it is made ‘aTf to a majroor pronoun, it is necessary to repeat the Harf al-jarr, such as مررت بك و بزيدٍ .
Know that the ma’Toof (taabi’) follows the ruling of the ma’Toof ‘alaih (matboo’), meaning when the first is a Sifah for something, a khabr, a Silah, or a Haal, then the second is also like that. The rule is that whenever it is permissible for the ma’Toof to stand in the place of the ma’Toof ‘alaih, ‘aTf is permissible, and whenever it is not (permissible … stand in place of ….), then it (‘aTf) is not (permissible).
‘aTf upon the ma’mools of two different ‘aamils is permissible if the ma’Toof ‘alaih is majroor muqaddam (meaning the majroor is muqaddam over marfoo’ and manSoob), and the ma’Toof is likewise, such as في ادارِ زيدٌ و الحجرةِ عمرٌو . In this matter, there are two differeing schools of thought: for it to be permissible absolutely, according to the grammarian farraa`, and for it not to be permissible absolutely, according to seebawayH.
It is a taabi’ that indicates upon a meaning in its matboo’, such as جاءني رجلٌ عالمٌ , or in its muta’alliq جاءني رجل عالمٌ ابوه , and it is also called Sifah.
The first type (the one indicating upon a meaning in its matboo’) follows its matboo’ in ten things: in i’raab (grammatical state), ta’reef (definiteness), tankeer (indefiniteness), ifraad (singularity), tathniyah (duality), jam’ (plurality), tadhkeer (masculinity), and ta`neeth (femininity), such as جاءني رجل عالم و رجلان عالمان و رجال عالمون و زيد العالم و امراة عالمة .
The second type (the one indicating upon a meaning in the muta’alliq) follows its matboo’ in five things only, I mean: i’raab (raf’, naSb, and jarr), ta’reef, and tankeer, like His saying, Most High: مِنْ هذِهِ القَرْيَةِ الظالِمِ اهلُها .
And the benefit of na’t is for to specify the man’oot if they are both nakirah, such as جاءني رجلٌ عالمٌ , and to clarify it if they are both ma’rifah, such as جاءني زيد الفاضل .
And it is sometimes used for eulogy and praise, such as بسم اللة الرحمن الرحيم . And it is sometimes used for dispraise, such as اعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم . And it is sometimes used for emphasis, such as نفخةٌ واحدةٌ .
And know that the nakirah can be made Sifah by a jumlah khabariyyah, such as مررت برجلٍ ابوه عالمٌ او قامَ ابوه . And the pronoun it never a Sifah or a mawSoof.
And know that which has passed from al-asmaa` al-mu’rabah, their i’raab is original, because ‘awaamil entered upon them from the marfoo’aat, manSoobaat, and majrooraat. And sometimes the i’raab of an ism is due to following what precedes it, and it is called al-taabi’, because it follows that which precedes it with respect to i’raab. And it is every second mu’rab with the i’raab of the one that precedes it form one part.
And the tawaabi’ are of five types: na’t (adjective), ‘aTf bil Huroof (conjunction), ta`keed (corroborative), badl (permutive), and ‘aTful bayaan.
Allah willing, I will try to complete the tawaabi’ over the next few days, and those will be my final posts until further notice, due to finals. Subsequently, I am beginning hifz, inshallah, so I will not have time to continue this blog. Although I will have only completed about 40% of the text, these are the most essential parts of naHw, and one should be able to navigate through the remainder of the text himself (with the aid of a sharH) at this point.
The majroor isms comprise only of the muDaaf ilaih, and it every ism to which something attributed by means of a
- spoken Harf al jarr, such as مررت بزيدٍ , and this construction is designated according to the terminology of the grammarians as jaar and majroor.
- or an assumed Harf al jarr, such as غلام زيدٍ , the assumption being غلام لزيدٍ , and this construction is designated according to the terminology of the grammarians as muDaaf and muDaaf ilaih. And it is necessery to free the muDaaf of tanween or what stands in its place, and it is noon al-tathniyyah and noon al-jam’, such as جاءني غلام زيدٍ و غلاما زيدٍ و مسلمو مصرٍ .
And know that iDaafah is of two types: ma’nawiyyah (understood) and lafZiyyah (spoken).
- as for ma’nawiyyah, it is when the muDaaf is other than a Sifah attached to its ma’mool, and it is either in the meaning of laam, such as غلام زيد , in the meaning of min, such as خاتمُ فضةٍ , or in the meaning of fee, such as صلوة اليل .
And the benefit of this type of iDaafah is to make the muDaaf definite is it is attached to a ma’rifah, as has passed, or to specify it if it is attached to a nakirah, such as غلام رجل .
- as for lafZiyyah, it is for the muDaaf to be a Sifah attached to its ma’mool, and it implies seperateness, like ضاربُ زيدٍ و حسنُ الوجه , and its only benefit is ease of pronunciation.
And know that when you make an ism, which is SaHeeH or in the place of SaHeeH, muDaaf to yaa al mutakallim, you give its last letter kasrah and make the yaa saakin or maftooH, كغلاميْ و غلاميَ و دلوِيْ و دلويَ و ظبيِيْ و ظبييَ .
And if the end of the ism is alif, you maintain it like عصايَ و رحايَ , differing from the tribe of hudhayl, who say عصِيَّ و رحِيَّ .
And if the end of the ism is a yaa, with a maksoor letter preceding it, you assimilate the yaa into the yaa and make the second yaa maftooH, so that there is not a gathering of two saakins ، تقول في قاضي قاضِيَّ .
And if its end is waw preceded by a maDmoom, you suppress the waw into the yaa, and as you have just implemented now, you say جاءني مسلميَّ .
And in the asmaa al-sittah, muDaaf to yaa al-mutakallim, you say اخي و ابي و حمي و هني , and في according to the majority and فمي according to some. And ذو it not muDaaf towards a Dameer, in actuality. And the saying of of the poet “انما يعرف ذا فضل من الناس ذووه ” is isolated. And when these isms are cut off from iDaafah, you say اخٌ و ابٌ و حمٌ و فمٌ . And dhoo is never cut off from iDaafah. And all of these are with the assumption of a Harful jarr.
It is the musnad after their entrance, such as ما زيدٌ قائمًا و لا رجلٌ حاضرًا .
And if the khabar occurs after illaa, such as ما زيدٌ الا قائمٌ , or the khabar precedes the ism, such as ما قائمٌ زيدٌ , or if in is added after maa, such as ما ان زيدٌ قائمٌ , the ‘amal of maa is nullified, as you saw in the mentioned examples. And this is according to the ahlul Hijaaz. As for the banu tameem, they do not make ‘amal on them.